|contributions to technique and tradition||contributions to instrument design and manufacture||associated repertoire/texts|
|Jacques-Martin Hotteterre (“Le Romain”)
|One of a large family of woodwind players. Became famous and wealthy as a performer and flute teacher. Could be considered the father of the French flute school.||Possibly made flutes in his father, Jean’s, woodwind shop.||Treatise Principes de la flûte traversière important source of historical flute information; also addresses oboe and recorder. Also composed, especially duets for pairs of flutes or recorders.|
|Dresden court flutist; soloist in Germany and France. Teacher of Quantz.|
|Johann Joachim Quantz
|Played many instruments before settling on flute; was one of the new wave of flutists who were able to concentrate on flute, rather than treating it as a double for oboe. Flute teacher of Prussian Prince Frederick; later became musical director of King Frederick’s evening concerts.||Galant-style compositions, including a large number of flute concerti and solo and trio sonatas, most of which are unpublished and undated.Wrote important treatise, Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte traversiere zu spielen. Includes a few chapters on playing the flute; more of the text is dedicated to musicianship and performance practice for all instruments.|
|Widely-admired soloist, orchestral flutist, and pedagogue. Noted for powerful tone and perfect intonation.||As a flutemaker, experimented with adding keys to the conical flute; also experimented with a fully-chromatic one-keyed flute.||Wrote several important and thorough treatises, one for a 2-key flute (D# and Eb keys) and later one for a 7-key flute.|
|Recitalist, chamber, orchestral, and theater musician on both bassoon and flute. First flute professor of Paris Conservatory (1795).||Wrote important tutor for the one-keyed flute.Compositions (including flute concerti, sonatas, and chamber music) raised the level of woodwind playing in late 18th-century France.|
|Virtuoso recitalist and orchestral player.||1830s – developed a new conical flute using ring keys.1847 – new model, cylindrical silver tube and “parabolic” head. This instrument became the basis of the modern concert flute.
Worked on tonehole placement for flutes, oboes, and bassoons; also invented non-musical items.
|Wrote a concerto and various other virtuoso pieces.|
|Virtuoso soloist and orchestral player, noted for brilliant technique and powerful tone.||His large-holed flute inspired Boehm’s innovations.|
|Flute maker, acknowledged by Boehm as the finest maker of Boehm-system flutes. His flutes were adopted by the Paris Conservatory in 1860.1869 – made the first gold flute.
1867 – improved model with thicker tube, larger toneholes, larger and more squared embouchure, sturdier mechanism, closed G#.
|Founder of the modern French school of flute playing. Pioneered new expressiveness of tone. Professor at Paris Conservatory 1893-1908. Important students included Philippe Gaubert and Louis Fleury.||Important flute scholar; prize-winning composer.Dedicatee of Enesco Cantabile et Presto (1904).|
|Flutist. Student of Taffanel at Paris Conservatory. Opera, orchestral, and chamber musician.1905 – joined New York Symphony Orchestra; stayed for the rest of his life.||Dedicatee of Varese Density 21.5 (1936).|
France. Also lived in Argentina and North America; died in Vermont.
|Flutist and pedagogue. Studied at Paris Conservatory with Taffanel. Known for musicianship and intensity of tone.Professor at Paris Conservatory 1932-1949. Legendary for his masterclasses. Combined a rational, scientific approach with romantic expression.||Dedicatee of Ibert Concerto (1934).|
|Important 20th-century flutemakers. Haynes began making Lot-style flutes in the USA. Powell worked in Haynes’s shop and later opened his own company. Brannen was a Powell employee who started his own shop. Muramatsu, a Japanese maker, drew his inspiration from Haynes and Powell’s flutes.|
|Studied at Marseilles and Paris Conservatories. Orchestral and chamber player, but best known for solo career and recordings.1969-1981 professor of flute at Paris Conservatory.||Discovered and edited many works by lesser-known composers.Favored 18th-century repertoire, but also commissioned many contemporary works.
Dedicatee of Poulenc Sonata (1957), Tomasi Sonatine pour flûte seule (1949), Francaix Divertimento (1953), Jolivet Concerto (1949), Feld Sonata (1957), Martinon Sonatine, Boulez Sonatine (1946).
|1974 – developed with Powell the “Cooper Scale” for their flutes.|
|Studied in Britain; later with Rampal at Paris Conservatory and Moyse privately. Orchestral and chamber player, soloist and recording artist. Known to the public for his recordings of popular music and his high-profile political appearances. Knighted in 2001.|
|Recording artist.Known for mastery and pedagogy of extended techniques.||Has composed for rare members of the expanded flute family; also flute in ensemble with conventional and unconventional instruments (including electronic instruments and non-Western instruments). Several treatises on use of extended techniques.|
Rahsaan Roland Kirk
|Important American jazz flutists. Wess, Moody, and Shank considered “straight ahead” players, Dolphy and Kirk more experimental.|